Reducing Odors in Waste Rooms

Reducing Odors in Waste Rooms

Facilities, apartments and condominiums often suffer from odors from the garbage rooms that migrate from the holding area to the garage or on the floors through the chute system.

Different stand-alone systems can be used to eliminate these problems by destroying bacteria and removing chemical and biological odors. The objective is to rapidly recirculate the air in the room in front of UV-C to break down bacteria’s DNA, and in front of UV-V to oxidize the chemical decay molecules while minimizing the residual ozone.

MANUAL SETTING EQUIPMENT

The Sanuvair® S600:
This stand-alone UV air purifier incorporates a variable blower of 300 to 600 cfm, an aluminum mesh washable prefilter to capture particulates and 3 full UV-V oxidizing lamps. According to the customer’s needs, one, two or three UV-V 6.5’’ U shaped  lamps are lighted up.

Room size:  up to 8,000 cubic feet

Suggested installation Sanuvair® S600:

AUTOMATIC SETTING EQUIPMENT

The Sanuvair® S300 OZD:
This stand-alone UV air purifier incorporates a two-speed blower of 220/300 cfm, a 2” pleated prefilter to capture particulates, 1 UVC/UVV lamp and 1 full UV-V oxidizing lamp tied with 20 ft of wiring to an ozone controller set at 0.025 ppm. The controller will sample the air every minute and trigger off the UV-V lamp if more than the set point of ozone is detected. It also comes with 2 extra prefilters.

Room size:  up to 3,000 cubic feet

Suggested installation Sanuvair® S300 OZD:

The Sanuvair® S1000 OZD:
This stand-alone UV air purifier incorporates a blower of 1,000 cfm, 2 x 1” pleated prefilter to capture particulates, 1 UVC/UVV “J” shaped 16” lamp and 1 full UV-V “J” shaped 16” oxidizing lamp tied with 20 ft of wiring to an ozone controller set at 0.025 ppm. The controller will sample the air every minute and trigger off the UV-V lamp if more than the set point of ozone is detected. It also comes with 2 extra prefilters.

Room size:  up to 10,000 cubic feet

Suggested installation Sanuvair® S1000 OZD:

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About PCO: Photocatalytic Oxidation

About PCO: Photocatalytic Oxidation

By Normand Brais, P.Eng., M.A.Sc., Ph.D.

Common Titanium oxide base catalyst: TiO2

In chemistry, PCO is the acceleration of a photoreaction in the presence of a catalyst. In catalyzed photolysis, light is absorbed by an adsorbed substrate. The photocatalytic activity depends on the ability of the catalyst to create electron–hole pairs, which generate free radicals (hydroxyl radicals: OH) able to undergo oxidation reactions. Its comprehension has been made possible ever since the discovery of water electrolysis by means of the titanium dioxide. Commercial application of the process is called Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) and is used for water treatment.

Titanium dioxide, particularly in the anatase form, is a photocatalyst under ultraviolet light. Recently it has been found that titanium dioxide, when spiked with nitrogen ions, or doped with metal oxide like tungsten trioxide, is also a photocatalyst under visible and UV light. The strong oxidative potential of the positive holes oxidizes water to create hydroxyl radicals. It can also oxidize oxygen or organic materials directly. Titanium dioxide is thus added to paints, cements, windows, tiles, or other products for sterilizing, deodorizing and antifouling properties and is also used as a hydrolysis catalyst.

Although this technology looks perfectly transposable to air, there is one main practical caveat that recently came to light: the titanium oxide is being “poisoned” by silica and its useful service life is severely impaired. After some longer time experience of this technology in the air, it was observed that the PCO would gradually decay and lose most of its oxidative potential within a year or less.

The effect of silica as a titanium oxide neutralizer is well known in the sunscreen industry. Every sunscreen with a physical blocker contains titanium dioxide because of its strong UV light absorbing capabilities, thus preventing UV from reaching the skin. Sunscreens designed for infants or people with sensitive skin are often based on titanium dioxide and/or zinc oxide, as these mineral UV blockers are less likely to cause skin irritation than chemical UV absorber ingredients, such as avobenzone.

However, to avoid the creation of carcinogenic radicals on the skin due to the activity of photocatalytic reaction, the titanium dioxide particles used in sunscreens are intentionally coated with silica. The addition of silica effectively neutralizes the photocatalytic properties of the titanium oxide, making the sunscreen harmless.

Because silica is commonly found in household applications such as caulking and many other materials, the PCO titanium oxide is contaminated with silica and will lose half of its activity within three months. This means that after 6 months, it will be down to 50% efficiency, after 9 months down to 25% efficient, and after a year down to 12.5% only. It will then cease to provide adequate performance as an air purification device. This is the main reason why serious companies are now taking a step back and even walking away from the marvelous promises of common titanium oxide based PCO as a solution for odor removal.

New Cobalt Photocatalytic Oxidation (Co-PCO)

Using UV light to achieve clean air and water resources through photocatalytic oxidation is a goal of scientists worldwide(1,2,3) over the last two decades. Photocatalysis is a widely generic term that applies to chemical oxidation reaction enabled by photon activated catalyst, commonly called PCO in the air purification industry.

PCO catalyst consists of a metal oxide semiconductor, usually titanium oxide (TiO2), with a band gap energy that allows the absorption of ultraviolet photons to generate electron hole pairs called “active sites” that can initiate the chemical reaction. For titanium oxide PCO, the energy band gap is centered on 360 nm photons, which is in the middle of the UV-A range (315-400 nm). This is quite far away from the UV-C range of common germicidal lamps emitting most of their photon energy at 254 nm wavelength and as such partially explains the rather deceiving efficiency of current titanium oxide based PCO air purifiers using low pressure mercury lamps. This low efficiency is mainly responsible for hazardous by-product formation such as formaldehyde. Another important barrier to the implementation of actual PCO is its short lifetime due to silica poisoning of the catalyst. Silica which is the main constituent of common sand is omnipresent in our daily environment. Siloxanes have been identified as the root cause of current PCO deactivation(4). As deactivation reduces the number of active sites available, incomplete oxidation becomes prevalent, promoting the production of by-products.

The fundamental effect of the addition of cobalt oxide is to shift the energy band gap of the catalyst toward higher energy photons closer to the 254 nm photons emitted by low pressure mercury lamps. With a capacity to absorb at higher energy, the cobalt enhanced catalyst provides enough photocatalytic activity to completely oxidize household VOCs(5,6) and avoid the transient formation of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and other incompletely oxidized by-products. It is worth noting that the higher energy active band gap of the Cobalt catalyst is much wider than the actual titanium oxide and was found to be almost insensitive to silica poisoning. Actual testing has shown no significant decline in the Cobalt catalyst activity after a full year in service.

References

  1. Peral,J.; Ollis, D.F. Heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation of gas-phase organics for air purification: acetone,1-butanol, butyraldehyde,formaldehyde,and m-xylene oxidation. J.Catal. 1992, 136, 554-565.
  2. Dibble, L.; Raupp, G. Kinteics of the gas-solid heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation of trichloroethylene by near UV illuminated titanium oxide. Catal. Lett., 1990,4, 345-354.
  3. Pichat,P.; Disdier, J.; Hoang-Van, C.; Mas, D.;Goutallier, G.; Gaysee, C. Purification/deodorization of indoor air and gaseous effluents by TiO2 photocatalysis. Catal today 2000, 63, 363-369.
  4. Warner, N.A.; Evenset, A.; Christensen, G., Gabrielsen, G.W.; Borga, K.; Leknes, H. Volatile siloxanes in the European arctic: Assessment of sources and spatial distribution. Env iron. Sci. Technol., 2010,4,7705-7710.
  5. Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) study. Available online: http://www.epa.gov/iaq/base/index.html
  6. Hay, S.; Obee, T.; Luo, Z.; Jiang, T.;Meng, Y.; He, J.;Murphy, S.; Suib,S. The viability of photocatalysis for air purification. Molecules, 2015, 20, 1319-1356.

Odor Remediation of Environmental Tobacco Smoke

Odor Remediation of Environmental Tobacco Smoke

By Normand Brais, P.Eng., M.A.Sc., Ph.D.

INTRODUCTION

Environmental Tobacco Smoke or ETS is a technical term which describes the contaminants released into the air when tobacco products burn or when smokers exhale. At room temperature, many of these compounds are gaseous but most are solid ash particulate and liquid droplets called aerosol.

Particles in tobacco smoke are especially problematic to remove not because of their small size (0.1 to 1 micron), but because they are coated with tar, nicotine, phenols, and many other pungent odorous compounds. They can remain airborne for hours after smoking stops.

Due to their aerosol coating, tobacco smoke particles are not dry but rather sticky and will inevitably clog the surface of any types of air filters, making them quickly wasted and thus ruling out the solution of simple filtration. Their stickiness makes them cling to walls, carpets, fabrics, and clothing, thus impregnating the environment with a lasting nasty smell.

This article describes those technical challenges and explores from a fundamental point of view the proper use of ultraviolet photo-oxidation process as a solution to remediate the odors caused by environmental tobacco smoke.

COMPOSITION OF CIGARETTE SMOKE

Studies have shown that cigarette smoke contains over 3,800 chemical compounds. Some of these compounds are shown in Table 1 below. Cigarette smoke aerosols are essentially condensable gases resulting from incomplete combustion. Combustion being an oxidation process, those aerosols can be rendered less sticky and turned into dry ash by completing their oxidation. Their odors would even disappear if they could be fully oxidized down to water vapor and carbon dioxide, which are odorless compounds. If one could draw the smoke cloud directly into the combustion chamber of an industrial fume incinerator at 850 Celcius for two seconds, the odorous molecules cocktail listed in Table 1 would be completely oxidized and consequently odorless. Although it would work perfectly, this solution is obviously not economically sound.

 

Table 1. Chemical composition of cigarette smoke

Duration of smoke production (sec)

20 sec

550 sec

Characteristics or compound

Mainstream Smoke

Sidestream smoke

Particles (number per cigarette)

1.05E+12

3.50E+12

a) Solid particles and aerosols

(mg/cigarette)

(mg/cigarette)

Tar

20.80

44.10

Nicotine

0.92

1.69

Benzo (a) pyrene

3.50E-05

1.35E-04

Pyrene

2.70E-04

1.01E-03

Fluoranthene

2.72E-04

1.26E-03

Benzo (a) fluorene

1.84E-04

7.51E-04

Benzo (b/c) fluorene

6.90E-05

2.51E-04

Chrysene, benz (a) anthracene

1.91E-04

1.22E-03

Benzo (b,k,j) fluorenthrene

4.90E-05

2.60E-04

Benzo (e) pyrene

2.50E-05

1.35E-04

Perylene

9.00E-06

3.90E-05

Dibenz (a,j) anthracene

1.10E-05

4.10E-05

Dibenz (a,h) anthracene, ideno-(2,3) pyrene

3.10E-05

1.04E-04

Benzo (g,h,i) perylene

3.90E-05

9.80E-05

Anthanthrene

2.20E-05

3.90E-05

Phenols (total)

2.28E-01

6.03E-01

Cadmium

1.25E-04

4.50E-04

Polonium 210, pCi

7.00E-02

1.30E-01

b) Gases and vapors

(mg/cigarette)

(mg/cigarette)

Water

7.50

298.00

Carbon monoxide

18.30

86.30

Ammonia

0.16

7.40

Carbon dioxide

63.50

79.50

NOx

0.014

0.051

Hydrogen Cyanide

0.240

0.160

Acrolein

0.084

0.000

Formaldehyde

0.000

1.440

Toluene

0.108

0.600

Acetone

0.578

1.450

Source: Introduction to indoor air quality: a reference manual, EPA/40013-91/003

 

AIR FILTRATION AND IONIZATION LIMITATIONS AGAINST TOBACCO SMOKE

Inspection of Table 1 shows that filtration alone could not handle cigarette smoke aerosols. Past experience has shown that the very small sub-micron size of the particles requires expensive HEPA filters that become tar coated and consequently clogged very quickly.

Besides classic filtration, there is another well-known way to remove sub-micron particulates from the air. Electrostatic air filters also called air ionizers have this capability. Instead of capturing particles mechanically like classic filters, the idea behind electrostatic or electronic filtration is to electrically charge the particles so that they will migrate due to electrical forces toward nearby surfaces. The same effect is obtained by rubbing a balloon on one’s hair and then sticking it to a wall. Eventually, the balloon loses its charge and falls back to the floor.

Many of the popularly called “smoke eaters” use the electrostatic principle to collect smoke particles on metal plates. The effect of ionizers on the smoke particles in the air is the same, except that they have no collecting plates and the charged particles end up sticking on the walls and surfaces of the room. It is worth noting that since the cigarette particles are sticky with tar, they will overtime coat all the room surfaces with pungent smelly yellow-brown tar extract.

Experiences with ionizers into small volumes like a hand jar is quite conclusive where the smoke particles of one cigarette can be easily dispersed toward to jar walls within 15 to 20 seconds. However when repeating the same experience in a larger volume like a 3m x 3m x 3m room, the time required to clear the air from the same amount of smoke goes up to several hours!

The explanation for this loss of effectiveness as the room size increases is rooted into basic fundamental physics of electrostatic forces: the Coulomb Law, which states that the electrical forces between charged particles decreases with the square of their distance. The Coulomb Law implies that when the distance is doubled, the electrical force is reduced by a factor of 4. When comparing the electrical forces in the small jar where the particles are within less than a few centimeters from one another and from a nearby wall with that of a room of a few meters wide, the electrostatic forces responsible for the dispersion of the smoke particles are down by the square of the ratio of 1 meter to 1 centimeter i.e. the square of 100 or 10,000 times less electrical force !

This fundamentally explains why experiment based on removing the same number of smoke particles in a normal size room takes several hours (10,000 + seconds) whereas the old sales-pitch demonstration videos performed in a hand size container takes seconds. Not only air ionization does not remove the odors due to the walls and surface tar coating effect, but their electrostatic actions are way too slow to have any significant cleaning effect except in a small jar. On top of their ineffectiveness, the fact that room surfaces will get gummy as they accumulate the electrically charged tar particles instead of using some internal cleanable capture plates like in all electrostatic smoke eater units, the air ionizers are in fact an ill-conceived version of an electrostatic smoke eater and an overall bad idea.

EFFECT OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT ON CIGARETTE SMOKE

When ultraviolet UV-C light photons hit a tar or nicotine molecule, they carry enough impact energy to break the interatomic chemical bonds and shatter the molecule into many smaller molecules. The energy of germicidal UV photons at 254 nm wavelength is 470 kJ/mole, an energy greater than the energy of all the chemical bonds listed in Table 2. By comparison, visible light with an average wavelength of 550 nm has photon energy of only 217 kJ/mol.

It is therefore quite clear that some bonds within tar, nicotine and phenols molecules in the smoke can be broken down by UV-C irradiation but not by visible light.

Table 2. Chemical Bonds Strength4

Chemical Bond

Chemical Bond Average Energy (kJ/mol)

C – C

347

C – H

413

C – N

305

C – O

358

C – S

259

 N – H

391

Therefore, the chemical bonds between carbon atoms and hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms will be broken down by UVC ultraviolet photons, resulting broken pieces of molecules. Following this process, the broken molecules can now be further oxidized to complete their combustion and reduce their odor potential.

This oxidation can be accomplished by using a higher energy ultraviolet of 185 nm wavelength called UVV, where the second V stands for Vacuum. UVV photon have an energy of 645 kJ/mole but can only propagate into a vacuum because the dioxygen molecule in the air absorbs it and as a result gets broken up into monoatomic oxygen. At normal atmospheric pressure, UVV photons are almost totally absorbed within less than 5 mm away from a standard low pressure mercury quartz lamp UVV source. These free oxygen atoms generated by the UVV light are then able to react and complete the oxidation of the broken-down tar, nicotine, and phenols molecules.

The end products of this photo-oxidation process are then dry non-sticky ashes particles that can now be captured by adequate standard filters. This way the odors are eliminated by the oxidation process and the dry resulting particles removed by filtration.

The proper sizing to avoid oversizing of photo-oxidation system is of utmost importance. Should there be nothing to react with, the UVV generated oxygen atoms O* will react with dioxygen molecules O2 to produce ozone O3, another undesirable compound. Ozone is a not a stable molecule and will decompose naturally into normal dioxygen at ambient room temperature within 20 to 30 minutes depending upon relative humidity. The OSHA limit for 8 hours exposure is 0.05 ppm of ozone. Because the generation rate and the rate of decomposition of ozone in the absence of any smoke or other volatile contaminants in a given room size at an ambient temperature and ventilation rate can all be adequately calculated, it is possible to size an ultraviolet photo-oxidation system that will never exceed the OSHA safety limit.

CONCLUSION

This paper has described in detail the nature and composition of cigarette smoke and the consequential inherent shortcomings of classical filtration and electrostatic filters or air ionizers. Many years of experimental evidences backed by calculations based on cigarette smoke chemical composition show that the odor of cigarette smoke cannot be removed without altering the structure of the molecules responsible for the odors which are essentially tar, nicotine, and phenols. Besides thermal incineration, ultraviolet photo-oxidation has proven to be the most effective way to accomplish this by degrading and oxidizing those molecules. Their oxidation render the smoke particles dry and non-sticky which make them acceptable candidates for standard filtration. Care must be taken to adequately engineer the ultraviolet photo-oxidation system with respect to the room size and ventilation rates to keep the potential residual ozone well within the OSHA limit when the treated room becomes free from tobacco smoke.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author is grateful to Francisco Doyon P.Eng. and Grégory Clément P.Eng. for sharing their experimental data on the effect of air ionizers on environmental tobacco smoke inside rooms of various scale.

References

  1. C.N. Davies, Cigarette smoke: generation and properties of the aerosol, J.Aerosol Sci. Vol 19, No.4, pp463-469, 1988.
  2. Hays, Gobbell, Ganick, Indoor Air Quality, McGraw-Hill,1995, p.58.
  3. Spengler, Samet, McCarthhy, Indoor Air Quality Handbook. McGraw-Hill, 2001.
  4. UWaterloo, Bond Lengths and Energies. n.d. Web. 21 Nov 2010.
  5. http://www.science.uwaterloo.ca/~cch…20/bondel.html EPA. Reference Guide to Odor Thresholds for Hazardous Air Pollutants Listed in the Clean Air Act Ammendments of 1990.
  6. EPA/600/R-92/047, March 1992.

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Disinfecting Air & Reducing Ethylene in Cold Rooms

Disinfecting Air and Reducing Ethylene in Cold Rooms

Mold and bacteria can severely impact the quality of meat, chicken, fish, fruits and vegetables that may be stored or prepared in warehouses and cold rooms. Ethylene off-gassing causes fruits and vegetables to prematurely ripen and aged, dramatically shortening shelf-life.

Sanuvox UV IL-CoilCean systems installed facing the cooling coil are designed to bask the coil and air with ultraviolet energy destroying microorganisms including bacteria, mold and viruses while oxidizing and reducing ethylene off-gassing.

With its high efficiency patented air disinfection systems, Sanuvox offers the right solution when the objective is to destroy airborne bio-chemical contaminants (e.g. bacteria, viruses, mold) that may affect the storage and preparation of fish, chicken and meat, as well as destroy ethylene off-gassing that causes produce to ripen faster.

THE EQUIPMENT

Multi-IL CoilClean units are installed facing the cooling coils in the fan coil unit. Each IL unit includes a UV-C/UV-V lamp mounted in an anodized aluminum parabolic reflector. The ballast box incorporates LED status lights for providing lamp status and replacement and can be remotely monitored.

OPERATING THE EQUIPMENT

The fan coil unit recirculates the air where:
1. The UV-C germicidal section of the UV lamp destroys airborne biological contaminants (viruses, mold, bacteria and spores).
2. The UV-V oxidizing section of the UV lamp reduces ethylene, slowing down the ripening process of vegetables and fruits. Coils remain clean and more energy efficient.

SLOWING DOWN THE CONTAMINATION SPREAD WITH UV-C
Produce will degrade due to the rotting process that is caused by parasitic fungi and mold. Food deterioration begins with the breakdown of the cellular tissue by enzymatic action that allows the growth of microbes. Germicidal UV (UV-C) is extremely effective at preventing the reproduction of bio-contaminants because UV-C destroys airborne fungi, molds and spores, limiting the contamination spread from one fruit to another. Meat, fish and chicken are especially vulnerable to airborne biocontamination. UV-C sterilizes the air, destroying contaminants as they circulate within the cold room.

RETARDING THE RIPENING PROCESS WITH UV-V
Photo-oxidation with UV-V can be used to reduce chemicals that trigger the ripening of fruits and vegetables. The life stages of a plant are influenced by plant hormones. An organic compound involved with ripening is ethylene, a gas created by plants from the amino acid, methionine. Ethylene increases the intracellular levels of certain enzymes in fruit and fresh-cut products, which include:

  • Amylase, which hydrolyzes starch to produce simple sugars.
  • Pectinase, which hydrolyzes pectin, a substance that keeps fruit hard.

UV-V oxidizes and thus neutralizes the ethylene molecules released by the ripening process, slowing down the spread of ripening to the surrounding produce. This oxidation process breaks down ethylene into carbon dioxide and water vapor.
Ethylene C2H4 C2H4+ O* -> CO2 +H2O

WHERE TO INSTALL

Many buildings and facilities can be equipped with the IL-CoilCean systems, like cold storage rooms, groceries, meat, fish and chicken storage, preparation facilities, fruit and vegetable retailers, warehousing and transportation.

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Fruits & Vegetables Surface Disinfection

Fruits and Vegetables Surface Disinfection

Surface contamination of fruits and vegetables is a problem for growers, distributors and retailers. Mold and bacteria can have severe effects causing produce to spoil.

Sanuvox UV IL Food Safe purifiers for food products and their packaging are exceptionally safe and versatile disinfection systems for surface, packaging and conveyor applications designed to bask meat, fish, poultry, fruits and vegetables, baked goods and packaging with UV-C germicidal light. The UV system is extremely effective at destroying surface contamination while extending product shelf-life. Only a few seconds of exposure can achieve up to 99.9999% destruction of common biological contaminants that are problematic in the food industry.

Incorporate the UV fixtures into the production line (i.e. over the conveyor belts) to bask the products and surfaces prior to packaging, maintening a sterile product ready for distribution and consumption.

As the system is incorporated into the production line, the lamps are covered with Teflon, that will trap pieces of grlass in the event of breakage.

When the objective is to prevent and destroy microbial contamination, such as bacteria and fungi that occur naturally on fruit and vegetable surfaces, and are responsible for premature decay, Sanuvox offers the right solution with its high efficiency patented air purification system. The process will leave no residue as is found using chlorine or irradiation treatments with gamma rays. At the producer level, sterilization of fruits and vegetables could reduce the use of pesticides.

THE EQUIPMENT

IL Food Safe purifier for food products equipped with parabolic reflectors and Teflon coated lamps will be positioned equidistant across the conveyor, parallel to it. Computerized sizing programs taking into account the speed of the conveyor and the contaminant(s) to be treated will determine the size of the lamps.

Typical installation:

OPERATING THE EQUIPMENT

The end user will determine the location and design of the lamp assembly enclosure that will attach to
the conveyor guaranteeing there is no direct UV exposure to employees. Fruits and/or vegetables will be exposed for a predetermined period of time to UV light as they move through the enclosure on the conveyor. This predetermined time will be sufficient to sterilize the fruit and/or vegetable pathogens and slow down ripening process.

RESEARCH ON STRAWBERRIES
Researchers from the Department of Food, Science and Nutrition (Laval University, Quebec, Canada) demonstrated that exposing strawberries to ultraviolet light prolongs their shelf life. Freshly picked strawberries exposed to germicidal ultraviolet (UV-C) have retained their freshness for 14 to 15 days, while untreated freshly picked strawberries were “almost done” on the tenth day.

The conclusions from this research have been published in the Food Science Journal. Refrigeration, which slows the growth of microorganisms and fruit ripening, allows a limited but effective mean regarding conservation of strawberries.

“Exposure to UV-C is a very interesting approach to facilitate the marketing and distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables”, says researcher Joseph Arul. This treatment slows the ripening of strawberries: they remain firm longer, their respiratory rate is lower, their color is more attractive and the taste is not altered. “It is believed that exposure to UV-C would kill some mold on the surface of the fruit or, more likely, the treatment would stimulate the defense mechanisms of the produce,” suggests the researcher.

Arul’s team has already demonstrated the benefits of UV-C exposure for the conservation of carrots, broccoli, tomatoes and blueberries.

Arul does not anticipate negative reactions from consumers, unlike gamma irradiated food, or more recently, genetically modified organisms. “The technique is more acceptable to a consumer. In low doses, UV is beneficial. It is a light source and I do not think people have problems with that.”

WHERE TO INSTALL

Many facilities can be equipped with the IL Food Safe, like vegetable growers, fruit and vegetable importers, hydroponic producers, and value-added packagers.

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Fighting Tobacco Smoke

Fighting Tobacco Smoke

Designated smoking areas, althrough typically spared from working and living spaces, often cause problems with air that may very well circulate in and out of these areas. The smoking area itself may be overwhelmed with cigarette smoke, causing smokers to seek alternative places to smoke.

Sanuvox Technologies offers two units that are effective at removing tobacco smoke from the air and reducing cigarette odors, as well as nicotine and smoke that are so problematic. Unlike conventional technologies, Sanuvox UV systems do not use costly carbon for absorption nor rely solely on filters, which easily become coated with tar and nicotine The proprietory process changes the molecular structure of the tobacco smoke into a fine powder, which is then captured on the filter media. It is recommended that the UV systems be sized to provide a recirculation rate of 6 to 8 air changes per hour.

THE EQUIPMENT

Stand-alone Sanuvair® 300 VOC or Sanuvair® 1000 VOC UV air purifiers that include germicidal and oxidizing ultraviolet lamps, prefilters and a main filter to capture nicotine and smoke. An optional VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) detector can be used with multiple lamps when the number of occupants increases.

Typical installation:

OPERATING THE EQUIPMENT

Sanuvox dual zone UV lamp will reduce odors, nicotine and smoke in the room through recirculation. With the optional UV-V lamp(s) and VOC detector, if the smoke level increases (because there are more smokers), the VOC detector will trigger the additional oxidizing lamp(s), then shut them off when the level decreases. The cycle is repeated, lowering the odor, nicotine and smoke levels, until the maximum reduction is reached.

UNDERSTANDING THE CHEMISTRY
Cigarette smoke is composed mainly of:

  • White ash
  • Nicotine molecules
  • Chemical by-products

Ash will be trapped by the pre-filters. Nicotine will be transformed into a type of yellow powder that will be captured by the prefilters and the main filter. The chemical by-products will be oxidized by the UV process: high frequency UV-V energy activates the organic molecules and accelerates the chemical reaction, resulting in the air being oxidized. Odors are oxidized by the process of photolysis that initiates the breaking of chemical bonds by the action of the ultraviolet light. The oxidation process will reduce odors and chemical contaminants by changing the complex molecular contaminants into CO2 and H2O

SIZING THE EQUIPMENT

Approximately 6 to 8 air changes per hour are required. This reduces the standard of fresh air required by two thirds.

An Sanuvair® S300 VOC unit (300 cfm) will be sufficient for a 1,920 cu.ft. room (12’ X 20’ X 8’) with 9.3 changes per hour.

An Sanuvair® S1000 VOC unit (1000 cfm) will be sufficient for a 9,600 cu.ft. room (20’ X 40’ X 10’) with 7.5 changes per hour.

WHERE TO INSTALL

Many buildings and facilities can be equipped with one of these stand-alone units, like eldercare homes, private homes, poker rooms and casinos, bingo halls, cigar bar, or smoking rooms.

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Removing Ground Level Odors

Removing Ground Level Odors

Processing activities, as well as maintenance operations, can produce troublesome odors that may affect those working and visiting a site or facility. It may even cause problems for those living in the underline community. These applications include sewage treatment facilities, sump pump operations, excavation, pumping stations, arena ice pits, grease traps, etc.

Sanuvox UV disinfection systems may be outfitted with special oxidation UV Lamp (185nm) that produce high levels of ozone (O3) to effectively combat odors emanating from these various types of applications. The self-contained systems can be located very close to the source of the odor alleviating the issue where it is most concentrated.

When the objective is to to substantially reduce odors generated by a sump pit, such as sewage ditch, sewer pumping stations, residual from ice scraping equipment (Zamboni), or grease traps, Sanuvox offers the right solution with its high efficiency patented air disinfection system.

THE EQUIPMENT

Stand-alone units that will either process air through recirculation in a room or inject a small quantity of ozone directly into the specific containment device to reduce odors.

An ozone controller can be used to limit the residual ozone outside of the containment area to a concentration level lower than the ASHRAE limit (0.05ppm).

Typical Sanuvair® S1000 OZD INSTALLATION:

OPERATING THE EQUIPMENT

The unit purifies the air through recirculation in two ways:
1. The UV lamp germicidal section destroys biological contaminants (viruses, fungi, bacteria) moving through air.
2. The UV lamp oxidizing section reduces the chemical components in the air through photo-oxidation.

PROCESS ON BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS
1-ACTIVATION PHASE: H2O+ O* –> OH* +OH*
Ultraviolet photon energy (170-220nm) is emitted from a high-intensity source to decompose (break-down) oxygen molecules into activated monoatomic oxygen. The rate of production or effectiveness of this process depends on the wavelength and intensity of its source.

2-REACTION PHASE: OH*+P –> POH
The activated oxygen atoms (O*) are then mixed in the airstream; the process will react with any compound containing carbon-hydrogen or sulfur, reducing them by successive oxidation to odorless and harmless by-products. If the activated oxygen atoms outnumber airborne contaminants, there will be the formation of ozone (O3) which will occur following the oxidation of normal oxygen molecules (02).

3- NEUTRALISATION PHASE: (also germicidal) O3+UV(C) –> O2+O*: O+O –> O2

SIZING
The stand-alone units will include an extra oxidizing (UV-V) lamp. In the absence of an ozone controller, a warning label must be provided to the user. Certain conditions may require up to four UV-V lamps in one unit.

WHERE TO INSTALL

Many buildings and facilities can be equipped with the S1000, like municipal sewage treatment plants, municipal pumping stations, ice-snow containment (pit) areas, hotels grease pits, and grey water treatment.

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Purifying Air in Kennels & Veterinarian Centers

Purifying Air in Kennels and Veterinarian Centers

Illness among animals especially dogs can be significantly higher when many of them are boarded within close proximity, or kept within the same room or building. Airborne illnesses can easily be transmitted from one animal to another. Odors may cause issues when they migrate to other areas and affect staff and visitors.

Sanuvox UV systems are the ideal solution for destroying airborne viruses and bacteria, as well as reducing the concentration of unpleasant odors, such as ammonia produced by animals in kennels, shelters, pet stores and veterinarian clinics. Its proprietary system eradicates biological contaminants (bacteria, viruses, germs and allergens), and destroys chemicals and biological odors.

THE EQUIPMENT

Multiple application UV systems can be used for both stand-alone and duct-mount installations.

As stand-alone units, the P900 is equipped with an 80 cfm blower, the Sanuvair® S300 with a 300 cfm blower, and the Sanuvair® S1000 with a 1000 cfm blower. Sanuvair® S300 and S1000 also come with filters to capture particulates (pet hair, etc.). A dual zone UV-C/UV-V lamp is standard. An “adjustable” oxidizing lamp is available.

As an in-duct unit, the Quattro is installed parallel to the airflow and includes four UV-C/UV-V lamps, each with a one-inch section of oxidizing UV-V. Two of the lamp’s oxidizing sections are covered with removable foil, allowing for increased oxidation if necessary.

Typical installations:

OPERATING THE EQUIPMENT

Each unit treats the air through recirculation in two ways:
1. The Germicidal UV-C lamp portion destroys airborne biological contaminants (viruses, mold,
bacteria.)
2. The Oxidizing UV-V lamp portion reduces airborne chemical contaminants and VOCs through
photo-oxidation.

PROCESS ON BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS

1-ACTIVATION PHASE:  H2O + O* –> OH* +OH*
Ultraviolet photon energy (170-220nm) is emitted from a high-intensity source to decompose (break down) oxygen molecules into activated monoatomic oxygen. The rate of production or effectiveness of this process depends on the wavelength and intensity of its source.

2-REACTION PHASE: OH*+P –> POH
The activated oxygen atoms (O*) are then mixed in the airstream; the process will react with any compound containing carbon-hydrogen or sulfur, reducing them by successive oxidation to odorless and harmless by-products. If airborne contaminants are outnumbered by the activated oxygen atoms, then there will be formation of residual ozone (O3) which will occur following the oxidation of normal oxygen molecules (02).

3- NEUTRALISATION PHASE: (also germicidal)  O3+UV(C) –> O2+O*: O+O –> O2

CHEMICAL DECOMPOSITION:
Ammonia NH3+OH* –> N2 + H2O

WHERE TO INSTALL

Many buildings and facilities can be equipped with either the stand-alone disinfection units or the in-duct unit, like kennels, pet boarding and animal shelters, laboratories, veterinarian centers, and zoos and pet stores.

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Coil Cleaning in Museums & Archives

Coil Cleaning in Museums and Archives

Air quality can severely impact and deteriorate irreplaceable paintings, documents, drawings, books and journals within a vault, storage area, library and exposition hall. Preserving these fine treasures from the ravages of mold, spores and bacteria are a priority for libraries, archives, museums and collectors. UV systems are designed to destroy airborne mold spores and their associated odors, as well as bacteria that can very well destroy treasures from the past.

Sanuvox UV IL-CoilClean systems are designed to destroy mold and other bio-contaminants on the evaporator coil, which results in spores as well as off-gassing being « blown-off » the evaporator coil and distributed through the facility.

Sanuvox in-duct UV BioWall systems effectively destroy thousands of airborne bio-contaminants, such as mold, bacteria, viruses, chemicals, VOCs and odors.

THE EQUIPMENT

The Sanuvox IL-Coil Clean system for HVAC coils utilizes a patented technology to focus the maximum UV energy on any surface. The patented anodized aluminum parabolic reflector serves two purposes:
1. Redirects the maximum amount of UV energy produced by the lamp onto the coil surface, requiring less or shorter lamps and fixtures.
2. Protects the UV lamp from fouling.

OPERATING THE EQUIPMENT

Prolonged exposure to UV radiation will keep the air conditioning coil clean and free of bio-contaminants, including viruses, fungi, bacteria and bio-film that may grow on the coil. Maintaining a coil free of microbial growth will maximize the efficiency of coil heat transfer and reduce the hours of operation of the compressors, resulting in lower energy costs.

UV-C GERMICIDAL PRINCIPLE

The UV-C wavelength is well documented for its germicidal properties. The effects of ultraviolet radiation on biological contaminants have also been included in the latest ASHRAE Handbooks. Generally, this relationship is similar to the absorption curve of nucleic acid (DNA) the basis of all living organisms. The germicidal destruction rate for any specified bio-contaminant can be greater than 99.9% as the maximum UV intensity produced by the UV lamp is directed onto the coil and each application is sized according to its requirements.

WHERE TO INSTALL

Many buildings and facilities can be installed with either the IL-CoilClean or the BioWall, like libraroes, museums, archives, record rooms, evidence rooms, private collections, or galleries.

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Sterilizing Air in Facilities

Sterilizing Air in Facilities

New buildings are built tighter to save energy, while older buildings are implementing new measures to reduce heating and cooling loss. Reduced fresh air also prevents dilution of contaminated air resulting in an increase of contaminants as they are now trapped inside and are continually recirculated throughout the space.

Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) applications in hospitals, schools, commercial buildings and offices vary. From Hospital Acquired Infection (HAls), sick building syndrome, absenteeism and work place productivity, Indoor Air Quality influences these facilities in many differents ways.

When the objective is to eliminate up to 99.9999% of airborne bio-contaminants, including viruses and bacteria that circulate through the ventilation system without increasing the pressure drop resulting from high efficiency filtration, Sanuvox offers the right solution with its high efficiency patented air purification system.

THE EQUIPMENT

The BioWall air purification unit is installed in the ventilation duct parallel to the airflow, allowing sufficient contact time that is required for airborne sterilization. The UV-C intensity of each lamp can be measured in “realtime” with an optional UV-C sensor, ensuring the required inactivation intensity will be delivered to the contaminant.

OPERATING THE EQUIPMENT

To create the sterilization chamber in the existing duct (up to 5 feet deep per unit), the walls are covered with an aluminum reflective material. The proprietary sterilization sizing calculations take into account: air velocity, dimensions of the duct, the UV lethal dose needed to sterilize the microorganism for the desired inactivation rate. The sizing calculations will determine the number and length of the BioWall unit(s) required. The optional UV-C sensor will guarantee that the UV-C emitted from the lamp will exceed the amount of UV-C that is required at all times.

UVC GERMICIDAL PRINCIPLE

The 254nm UV-C germicidal wavelength has been used for decades for sterilization and its effect on microorganisms is well documented. UV germicidal process inactivates microorganisms by damaging their DNA structure, making it incapable of reproducing. The germicidal efficiency can deliver virtually a 100% disinfection rate. The system can achieve exceptionally high disinfection rates as a result of the BioWall unit being mounted parallel to the airflow and the desired intensity is sized for each particular application.

WHERE TO INSTALL

Many buildings and facilities can be equipped with the BioWall unit, like hospitals, private clinics, veterinary clinics, as well as fertility centers. It can also be installed in schools, universities, offices towers and commercial buildings.

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